Trauma in Adolescents Causes Long-Term Marked Deficits in Quality of Life: Adolescent Children do not Recover Preinjury Quality of Life or Function up to Two Years Postinjury Compared to National Norms

Holbrook TL , Hoyt DB , Coimbra R , Potenza B , Sise MJ , Sack DI , Anderson JP

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of nontuberculosis mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis in children has not been established. Until recently, surgical excision was the standard treatment, but the number of reports of successful antibiotic treatment is increasing, which questions whether surgery is the preferred treatment. In this randomized, multicenter trial, we compared surgical excision with antibiotic treatment. METHODS: One hundred children with microbiologically proven nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis were randomly assigned to undergo surgical excision of the involved lymph nodes or to receive antibiotic therapy with clarithromycin and rifabutin for at least 12 weeks. The primary end point was cure, defined as regression of the lymph node enlargement by at least 75%, with cure of the fistula and total skin closure without local recurrence or de novo lesions after 6 months, as assessed by clinical and ultrasound evaluation. Secondary end points included complications of surgery and adverse effects of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis revealed that surgical excision was more effective than antibiotic therapy (cure rates, 96% and 66%, respectively; 95% confidence interval for the difference, 16%-44%). Treatment failures were explained neither by noncompliance nor by baseline or acquired in vitro resistance to clarithromycin or rifabutin. Surgical complications were seen in 14 (28%) of 50 patients; staphylococcal wound infection occurred in 6 patients, and a permanent grade 2 facial marginal branch dysfunction occurred in 1 patient. The vast majority of patients who were allocated to antibiotic therapy reported adverse effects (39 [78%] of 50 patients), including 4 patients who had to discontinue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical excision is more effective than antibiotic treatment for children with nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis

J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan;42(1):137-41; discussion 141-2